Regional Nuclear Power Engineering Print

The market of regional power units is rather considerable: only in Russia about 470 fossil-fuelled power units (mainly, gas-fuelled ones) are under operation now. More than half of these power plants have already developed the resource and demand wearout replacement. One more
peculiarity of Russian regional power system is the considerable share of the thermal power plants developing electric power, industrial and household heat in heat-extraction mode – their share (on capacity) makes 54 %. Central heating is one of the socially most-significant and fuel-capacious sectors of Russian power system.

Development of regional nuclear power engineering based on nuclear power-supplyers implicates that district gas and coal cogeneration plants of medium size (ranging from 300 to 600 MW) will be substituted by nuclear heat and power plants.

Relatively inexpensive nuclear-generated heat and electricity will not only promote economic development in general but also facilitate evolution of the concrete enterprises and households, which are now compelled to spend an essential part of the budget for heating and electricity.

For district electricity and heat power supply JSC “Afrikantov OKBM” developed a ready-to-run small reactor plant design – the modular pressurized water reactor (PWR) VBER-300.

Environmental advantages of nuclear power stations lie in the fact that the technological cycle of power generation represents the closed system which is not demanding consumption of atmospheric oxygen and not evolving any chemical compounds to atmosphere. The radioactivity discharges, strictly regulated by operating sanitary standards, are limited by very small quantities which are safe for people health, and is thoroughly controlled in the process of plant operation.

Doses of irradiation received by a person from various sources (mSv/year)

Habitation in the area of nuclear power plant 0,002
Habitation in the area of thermal power plant, burning coal 0,35
Space rays 0,37
Air travel Moscow-Paris 0,4
Living in a house made of bricks or reinforced-concrete house 0,9
1 fluorography 1,2
1 chest fluoroscopy 9,0



VBER-300 Project

For electricity and heat power supply of communal and industrial enterprises JSC “Afrikantov OKBM” has developed a project of medium reactor plant with a modular pressurized water reactor and advanced passive safety systems – VBER-300.

VBER-300 reactor plant optimally combines latest achievements of nuclear shipbuilding technologies including reactor unit and hermetic primary coolant circuit with traditional for nuclear engineering (PWR) reactor core and fuel decisions. The project fulfills all the principal demands for safety, reliability and economic efficiency of new-generation nuclear power plants.

The decisions provided in this project on the avoidance of uncontrolled leaking of the coolant and accidents with reactor core drainage and fuel melting, effective safety systems, including the so called "passive" ones, reliably provide high level of radiation-environmental safety of the plants. VBER power units satisfy the requirements for nuclear heating plants on this factor and, consequently, that allows to place them nearby big cities. Radiation implications of any accidents are insignificant in comparison with natural radiation background and are limited by a plant site. The sanitary-protection zone of the station coincides with the perimeter of the industrial site, sized 500х500 m.

Concept scheme of the nuclear heat and power plant with VBER-300 reactor unit:
1 – reactor, 2 – steam generator, 3 – cleanup system and shutdown cooling, 4 – passive system of emergency shutdown cooling, 5 – hydraulic accumulators of the emergency cooling system of the reactor core, 6 – containment, 7 – turbine-generator set, 8 – heat exchanger of heating-system water.

Market implications of introducing VBER-type power units to regional electric power systems

  • Power line of 100-600 MW(e) based on the same unified decisions
  • Commissioning of capacities according to real growth of loadings in a region at smaller capital investments and expenses for development of grids in comparison with high capacity blocks.
  • Adaptation to existing capacities of regional power systems.
  • Cost minimization for reserve capacities in a system, and loss enhancements from energy underruns during the periods of planned and unplanned operation shutdowns in comparison with high capacity blocks.
  • Equivalent replacement of retired capacities of thermal power plants.
  • Competitive advantages in comparison with alternative power technologies on fossil fuel. 

 

 

 

 BOOKLETS

  1. VBER-300
  2. VBER-300 (full version)

 

More information from JSC "Afrikantov OKBM" web-site

Reactors for small and medium nuclear power plants